BCE (Before the Common Era)
1300 - 1200
The Linear B alphabet is in use.
Traditional date of the destruction of Troy.
During the reign of King David the first written evidence of Biblical texts appear.
The city of Carthage in North Africa is founded by the Phoenicians.
Homer and Hesiod are active.
The first Olympiad takes place.
Rome is founded.
Writing becomes widespread in the Greek world.
The Greek colony of Syracuse is established in Sicily.
The poet Archilochos is active on the island of Paros.
circa 600 -575
The poet Sappho is active in Lesbos.
587 - 538
The period of the Babylonian Exile, when Jewish scholars engage in major collation and editing of the Pentatuch.
circa 580 - 500
The mystic and philosopher Pythagoras develops a theory of metempsychosis--the transmigration of souls--perhaps inspired by ideas from India.
546 - 427
Peisistratus rules as tyrant of Athens.
Dionysia festival is at Athens, including a competition in tragedy.
The period of the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.
The Roman Republic is established.
Cleisthenes introduces democratic government in Athens.
A comedy is first performed in the Dionysia of Athens.
Aeschylus wins the tragedy competition in the Dionysia for the first
Sophocles wins the tragedy competition in the Dionysia for the first
430 - 399
Socrates active in Athens.
Euripides wins the tragedy competition at the
Plato is born into a wealthy family in Athens.
Aristophanes's play The Clouds parodies the philosophy of Socrates.
Sophocles and Euripides die.
Sparta defeats Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
The texts of the Pentateuch (Torah) are established.
Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens, Socrates is put to death.
Plato returns to Athens from Syracuse, where he served as an advisor to the tyrant Dionysius, and founds the Academy.
Aristotle is born.
359 - 336
Philip II reigns in Macedon.
Alexander the Great born to Philip of Macedon.
Plato dies in Athens.
Alexander the Great conquors Palestine
Aristotle establishes the Lyceum in Athens
Aristotle dies in Athens.
300 - 198
Ptolomies of Egypt rule in Palestine (Hellenistic
By this date, the books of the Prophets (Nevi`im) of the Hebrew Bible are established.
198 - 142
Seleucids (Macedonian Greeks) of Syria rule in Palestine.
175 - 164
Antiochus IV (Ephiphanes) of Syria imposes Hellenization on
Jews of Palestine; the Temple is defiled, Book of Daniel is written (set during the
Babylonian Exile of 587 - 538)
The Hasmonean (Maccabean) revolt begins in Palestine.
The Temple in Jerusalem is rededicated.
142 - 37
Hasmonean period in Palestine.
The Book of Ecclesiasticus mentions both the Prophets (Nevi`im) and the Writings (Kethuvim) of the Hebrew Bible.
Pompey conquors Judaea, beginning the Roman period in Palestine.
63 - 40
Hyrcanus II is high priest in Jerusalem.
Horace is born in southern Italy.
55 - 54
Roman colonization of Britain begins under Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar is assassinated
Ovid is born.
Herod the Great rules in Palestine.
Augustus becomes supreme over Roman empire.
Birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
CE (Common Era)
4 - 6
Archelaus rules as ethnarch of Judea
Ovid is banished to Tomis on the Black Sea.
4 - 39
Antipas tetrarch, rules in Galilee and Peraea.
Tiberius succeeds Augustus as emperor.